Nov. 9, 2015
Divisive presidential campaigns are not new in American history. Politics has always been a brutal sport in which different factions vie for any advantage on voting day. While the competitive spirit of elections has little changed over the centuries, the modes in which candidates communicate their platforms and tear down their opponents have changed significantly. Now, presidential contenders are tasked with crafting a unique brand, cultivating a positive public image, and must appeal to a broader base of voters with a wider array of backgrounds and interests than ever before. The ways in which voters come to perceive and judge candidates have likewise changed with time. Visual media, especially the Internet, is one of the most important factors in modern elections.
Until the end of the nineteenth century, presidential candidates did little personal campaigning, preferring to let their supporters do the heavy lifting of attacking opponents and persuading voters. Even though the candidates were not campaigning on their own behalf, presidential elections could be intensely personal and vicious affairs. In the election of 1800, Thomas Jefferson’s Federalist opponents warned that Jefferson would bring about “Murder, robbery, rape, adultery,” and that the air would be “rent with the cries of the distressed, the soil…soaked with blood and the nation black with crimes.” Jefferson’s own partisans attacked Adams, saying, “The grand object of [Adams’] administration has been to exasperate the rage of contending parties to calumniate and destroy every man who differs from his opinions.”
As a U.S. Senate candidate, future President Abraham Lincoln gained notoriety for participating in a series of seven debates with Stephen A. Douglas. These dialogues, which eventually became known as the Lincoln-Douglas Debates, provided the conceptual framework which brought about formal presidential debates in the modern era. These debates helped establish the precedent that candidates should present their cases and state their criticisms before the public, and engage in a constructive dialogue with each other about the future course of the nation.
The advent of radio and television revolutionized the election process. Prior to the early twentieth century, voters who could not attend rallies and speeches in person were left to read printed accounts long after the fact. With radio, large swathes of the American electorate could listen to candidates address the nation in real time. Broadcast debates became an important element of political competition. It also became important for campaigns to take debates into their election strategy. In 1940, Republican nominee Wendell Willkie challenged President Franklin D. Roosevelt to a series of radio debates. Roosevelt, perhaps knowing Willkie’s talent for public speaking, declined the proposal.
Televised debates finally gave the whole nation the ability to see candidates for themselves. In 1960, Democrat nominee John F. Kennedy met Republican nominee Richard Nixon in the first nationally televised presidential debate. Kennedy appeared to viewers as calm and collected, well groomed, and handsome, maintaining a comfortable level of eye contact with the camera and exuded an inviting demeanor. Kennedy also had makeup applied before broadcast. Nixon, on the other hand, began to sweat, looked unshaven, and shifted his eyes between the camera, the moderators, and the clock. In the opinions of many voters, Nixon appeared ill-at-ease and unprofessional. In the ensuing election, Nixon lost by a narrow margin.
Since 1960, televised presidential debates have become a staple feature of the election cycle. It has evolved from a method of engaging in constructive dialogue into an exchange in which soundbites and pithy retorts can make and break candidates. President Ronald Reagan developed a reputation as a talented debater, mastering the art of short and effective soundbites that energized his political base.
Mistakes in the age of televised debate can also harm campaigns. In 2000, many voters were bothered by what they perceived as Al Gore’s disrespectfulness. In 2011, during a Republican primary forum, candidate Rick Perry forgot core parts of his platform. In the age of the Internet, debate footage never dies. It can be shared and viewed limitlessly and is preserved for the public to see for posterity.
In the modern era, presidential debates have become less about substantive discussions of public policy and principle, and more about dispensing brief statements of opinion and platform easily conveyable in media broadcasts. Voters and candidates are left to consider whether this phenomenon is beneficial to the electoral process and whether the modern mode of debate is the most effective method for candidates to compare positions and ideas for the benefit of the American people.
Independent Candidates and Debates
In modern times, Independent candidates rarely participate in general election debates.
In 1980, Independent John Anderson participated in the first general election debate with Republican Ronald Reagan. Democrat Jimmy Carter (the incumbent) refused to participate in the debate if Anderson was included, so the debate included only Anderson and Reagan. In the second debate of the 1980 election, only Carter and Reagan participated. Anderson received 6.6% of the popular vote in the election, but zero electoral votes. Ronald Reagan won the election.
In 1992, Independent Ross Perot was included in all three general election debates, which also featured Democrat Bill Clinton and Republican George Bush (the incumbent). Perot ultimately received 18.9% of the vote, but zero electoral votes. Bill Clinton won the election.
While summer 2016 polls show both Libertarian Gary Johnson and Green Party Candidate Jill Stein polling in the high single digits, it will still be an uphill climb for either to participate in general election debates.
The Commission on Presidential Debates, which runs the general election debates, has several strict rules on debate participation for third party candidates. The Commission’s website states that, “under the 2016 Criteria, in addition to being Constitutionally eligible, candidates must appear on a sufficient number of state ballots to have a mathematical chance of winning a majority vote in the Electoral College, and have a level of support of at least 15 percent of the national electorate as determined by five selected national public opinion polling organizations, using the average of those organizations’ most recently publicly-reported results at the time of the determination.” A major task for third party campaigns is fighting to be included in the debates, which involves convincing major polling companies to include third-party candidates in their polling questionnaires.